Generators must determine whether generated material is first, a “waste”, second, a “solid waste”, and last, a “hazardous waste”.
A waste is defined as a material, substance, or by-product that is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required after the completion of a process.
The term solid waste can sometimes be misleading. Solid waste does not refer to the physical state of the waste. A solid waste can be a solid, liquid, or a confined gas. Defined in RCRA, a solid waste is any material that is no longer being used for the initial intended purpose and will be discarded or a material that must be reclaimed, or processed, before reuse.
A hazardous waste is a waste that is not specifically excluded as a RCRA solid waste or hazardous waste. A hazardous waste can either be a federally “listed” waste or a “characteristic” waste.
Federal Listed Hazardous Waste:
F-listed hazardous wastes (40 CFR 261.31) from non-specific sources which include, but aren’t limited to, spent halogenated and non-halogenated solvents, and wastewater treatment sludge from electroplating.
K-listed hazardous wastes (40 CFR 261.32) are generated from particular industrial sources which include, but not aren’t limit to, spent pickle liquor produced by the steel-making industry and bag house waste from steel arc furnaces.
U-listed hazardous wastes (40 CFR 261.33) are unused commercial chemical products, off-specification products, and container/spill residues of such products.
P-listed hazardous wastes (40 CFR 261.33) are called acute hazardous wastes and are subject to rigorous controls, in comparison to other hazardous wastes. Please contact a WasteXpress representative for further information regarding acute hazardous waste.
Characteristic Hazardous Waste:
Ignitability (40 CFR 261.21): A liquid (other than an aqueous solution containing less than 24% alcohol) and has a flash point less than 140˚F. A solid or gas and is capable, under normal temperature and pressure, of causing a fire through friction, absorption of moisture, or chemical changes, and, when ignited, creates a hazard. An oxidizer as defined in 49 CFR 173 or an flammable compressed gas.
Corrosivity (40 CFR 261.22): A liquid that has a pH of ≤ 2.0 or ≥12.5, or a liquid that corrodes steel at a rate ≥0.25 inches per year.
Reactivity (40 CFR 261.23): Normally unstable and readily undergoes a violent change without detonating, reacts violently with water, forms potentially
explosive mixtures with water, produces toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when mixed with water in a quantity sufficient to present a danger to the environment.
Toxicity (40CFR 261.24): A solid waste whose extract under the test procedure specified under 40CFR Part 261.24 contains one or more constituents at concentrations greater than those specified in the Maximum Concentration of Contaminants for the Toxicity Characteristic Table: